Physical dependence and withdrawal

Withdrawal symptoms, indicative of physical dependence can occur following the abrupt cessation of sub-chronic dosing of a CNS active molecule. Sygnature has developed a model for evaluating withdrawal-induced physical dependence in rats and validated it using both opiates and benzodiazepines.

Cessation of dosing following 28-days morphine administration results in clear withdrawal signs in the rat

Significant differences vs. vehicle: *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001.